On the third day there was a wedding in Cana of Galilee, and the mother of Jesus was there. 2 Now both Jesus and His disciples were invited to the wedding. 3 And when they ran out of wine, the mother of Jesus said to Him, “They have no wine.”
4 Jesus said to her, “Woman, what does your concern have to do with Me? My hour has not yet come.”
5 His mother said to the servants, “Whatever He says to you, do it.”
6 Now there were set there six waterpots of stone, according to the manner of purification of the Jews, containing twenty or thirty gallons apiece. 7 Jesus said to them, “Fill the waterpots with water.” And they filled them up to the brim. 8 And He said to them, “Draw some out now, and take it to the master of the feast.” And they took it. 9 When the master of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine, and did not know where it came from (but the servants who had drawn the water knew), the master of the feast called the bridegroom. 10 And he said to him, “Every man at the beginning sets out the good wine, and when the guests have well drunk, then the inferior. You have kept the good wine until now!”
11 This beginning of signs Jesus did in Cana of Galilee, and manifested His glory; and His disciples believed in Him.
12 After this He went down to Capernaum, He, His mother, His brothers, and His disciples; and they did not stay there many days. – John 2:1-12.
This miracle signifies the transformation of the old order (symbolized by the stone water jars used for ceremonial washing, v.6) into the new (the wine standing for God’s pure word which leads to eternal life in God’s kingdom) through Jesus Christ (cf. 2 Corinthians 5:17). See Isaiah 25:6–9 for the background image of salvation as a banquet.
This manifestation of His glory encourages His disciples to believe in Him.
Jesus goes to Capernaum for a few days, with His mother, brothers, and disciples.
“Woman” (v.4). — This is a respectful way of addressing a woman within that culture and is the way Jesus normally addressed women (4:21; 8:10).
“what does your concern have to do with me?” — Jesus answers Mary’s request, not because she is His mother, but as part of His work as the Messiah. This indicates that Mary’s special role as Jesus’ mother gives her no authority to intervene in Christ’s messianic career.
“My hour.” — Usually Jesus’ “hour” refers to the time of His suffering and death (12:27). Here Jesus is asserting that He and not Mary must determine the timetable of His earthly ministry.
“Whatever He says to you, do it” (v.5). — Ultimately, things have to be done as Jesus says.
“manifested his glory” (v.11). — The theme of Christ’s glory had already been introduced (1:14). In the Old Testament, God manifested His glory in a variety of miraculous events, and John’s comment indicates that he wants his readers to recognize Jesus’ deity.
“His disciples believed in him.” — See also v. 23 and 20:31, where John’s purpose for writing the book is revealed.